Humane Capture & Removal
Damage and Damage
Bats often fly about swimming pools, from which they drink or catch insects.
White light (with an ultraviolet component), commonly used for porch lights, building illumination, street and parking-lot lights, may attract flying insects, which in turn attract bats.
Unfortunately, the mere presence of a bat outdoors is sometimes beyond the tolerance of some uninformed people.
Information is a good remedy for such situations. Bats commonly enter buildings through openings associated with the roof edge and valleys, eaves, apex of the gable, chimney, attic or roof vent, dormers, and siding .
Bats in North America are virtually all insectivorous, feeding on a variety of lying insects (exceptions among house bats were noted previously). Many of the insects are harmful to humans.
While there must be some limitations based on such factors as bats’ body size, flight capabilities, and jaw opening, insectivorous bats apparently consume a wide range of prey (Barbour and Davis 1979). The little brown bat’s
diet includes mayflies, midges, mosquitoes, caddis flies, moths, and beetles. It can consume insects equal to one-third of its body weight in 1/2 hour of foraging. The big brown bat may fill its stomach in about 1 hour (roughly 0.1 ounce per hour [2.7 g/hr]) with prey including beetles, moths, flying ants, true bugs, mayflies, caddis flies, and other insects. The nightly consumption of insects by a colony of bats can be extremely large.
General Biology, Reproduction, and Behavior
Most North American bats emit high frequency sounds (ultrasound) inaudible to humans and similar to sonar, in order to avoid obstacles, locate and capture insect prey, and to communicate.
Bats also emit audible sounds that may be used for communication between them.
Bats generally mate in the fall and winter, but the female retains the sperm in the uterus until spring, when ovulation and fertilization take place. Pregnant females may congregate in maternity colonies in buildings, behind chimneys, beneath bridges, in tree hollows, caves, mines, or other dark retreats.
No nests are built. Births typically occur from May through July. Young bats grow rapidly and are able to fly within 3 weeks. Weaning occurs in July and August, after which the nursery colonies disperse.
Bats prepare for winter around the time of the first frost. Some species migrate relatively short distances, whereas certain populations of the Mexican free-tailed bat may migrate up to 1,000 miles (1,600 km). Bats in the northern United States and Canada may hibernate from September through May. Hibernation for the same species in the southern part of their range may be shorter or even sporadic. Some may fly during warm winter spells (as big brown bats may in the northeastern part of the United States). Bats often live more than 10 years. In response to a variety of human activities, direct and indirect, several bat species in the United States have declined in number during the past few decades. Chemical pesticides (particularly the use of persistent and bioaccumulation organic pesticides) have decreased the insect supply, and contaminated insects ingested by bats have reduced bat populations. Many bats die when people disturb summer maternity roosts and winter hibernacula.
Vandals and other irresponsible individuals may deliberately kill bats in caves and other roosts. Even the activities of speleologists or biologists may unintentionally disturb hibernating bats, which depletes fat reserves needed for hibernation.
Bats are able to squeeze through narrow slits and cracks. For purposes of bat management, one should pay attention to any gap of approximately 1/4 x 1 1/2 inches (0.6 x 3.8 cm) or a hole 5/8 x 7/8 inch (1.6 x 2.2 cm). Such openings must be considered potential entries for at least the smaller species, such as the little brown bat. The smaller species require an opening no wider than 3/8 inch (0.95 cm), that is, a hole the diameter of a US 10-cent coin (Greenhall 1982). Openings of these dimensions are not uncommon in older wood frame structures where boards have shrunk, warped, or other-wise become loosened. The discovery of one or two bats in a house is a frequent problem. In the Northeast, big brown bats probably account for most sudden appearances. Common in urban areas, they often enter homes through open windows or unscreened fire-places. If unused chimneys are selected for summer roosts, bats may fall or crawl through the open damper into the house. Sometimes bats may appear in a room, then disappear by crawling under a door to another room, hall-way, or closet. They may also disappear behind curtains, wall hangings, bookcases, under beds, into waste baskets, and so forth. Locating and removing individual bats from living quarters can be laborious but is important. If all else fails, wait until dusk when the bat may appear once again as it attempts to find an exit.
Since big brown bats may hibernate in the cooler recesses of heated buildings, they may suddenly appear (flying indoors or outdoors) in midwinter during a warm spell or a cold snap as they move about to adjust to the temperature shift.
Roosting Sites Bats use roosting niches that are indoors (human dwellings, outbuildings, livestock quarters, warehouses), semi-enclosed (loading docks, entrance foyers), partially sheltered (porches, carports, pavilions, highway under-passes, bridges), and open structural areas (window shutters, signs). Once there, active bats in and on buildings can have several economic and aesthetic effects, often intertwined with public health issues (Frantz, 1988).
Unusual roosting areas include wells, sewers, and graveyard crypts. Before considering control measures, verify that bats are actually the cause of the problem.Rub Marks Surface areas on walls, under loose woodwork, between bricks and around other bat entryways often have a smooth, polished appearance. The stained area is slightly sticky, may contain a few bat hairs, and is yellow-brown to blackish brown in color. The smooth gloss of these rub marks is due to oils from fur and other bodily secretions mixed with dust, deposited there as many animals pass repeatedly for a long period over the same surface.Openings marked in this way have been used heavily by bats. Noise Disturbing sounds may be heard from vocalizations and grooming, scratching, crawling, or climbing in attics, under eaves, behind walls, and between floors. Bats become particularly noisy on hot days in attics, before leaving the roost at dusk, and upon returning at dawn. Note that rustling sounds in chimneys may be caused by birds or raccoons and scratching and thumping sounds in attics and behind walls may indicate rats, mice, or squirrels. Guano and Urine Fecal pellets indicate the presence of animals and are found on attic floors, in wall recesses, and outside the house at its base. Fecal pellets along and inside walls may indicate the presence of mice, rats, or even roaches. Since most house bats north of Mexico are insectivorous, their droppings are easily distinguished from those of small rodents. Bat droppings tend to be segmented, elongated, and friable. When crushed, they become powdery and reveal shiny bits of undigestedinsect remains. In contrast, mice and rat droppings tend to taper, are un-segmented, are harder and more fibrous, and do not become powdery when crushed (unless extremely aged). The droppings of some birds and lizards may occasionally be found along with those of bats. However, bat drop-pings never contain the white chalky material characteristic of the feces of these other animals. Bat excrement produces an unpleasant odor as it decomposes in attics, wall spaces, and other voids. The pungent, musty, acrid odor can often be detected from outside a building containing a large or long-term colony. Similar odor problems occur when animals die in inaccessible locations. The odor also attracts arthropods which may later invade other areas of a building. Bat guano may provide a growth medium for microorganisms, some of which are pathogenic (histoplasmosis, for example) to humans. Guano accumulations may fill spaces between walls, floors, and ceilings. It may create a safety hazard on floors, steps, and ladders, and may even collapse ceilings. Accumulations also result in the staining of ceilings, soffet, and siding, producing unsightly and unsanitary conditions. Bats also urinate and defecate in flight, causing multiple spotting and staining on sides of buildings, windows, patio furniture, automobiles, and other objects at and near entry/exit holes or beneath roosts. Bat excrement may also contaminate stored food, commercial products, and work surfaces. Bat urine readily crystallizes at room temperature. In warm conditions under roofs exposed to sun and on chimney walls, the urine evaporates so quickly that it crystallizes in great accumulations. Boards and beams saturated with urine acquire a whitish powder like coating. With large numbers of bats, thick and hard stalactites and stalagmites of crystallized bat urine are occasionally formed. Although the fresh urine of a single bat is relatively odorless, that of any moderate-sized colony is obvious, and the odor increases during damp weather. Over a long period of time urine may cause mild wood deterioration (Frantz and Trimarchi 1984). As the urine saturates the surfaces of dry wood beams and crystallizes, the wood fibers expand and separate. These fibers then are torn loose by the bats crawling over such surfaces, resulting in wood fibers being mixed with guano accumulations underneath. The close proximity of bat roosts to human living quarters can result in excreta, animal dander, fragments of arthropods, and various microorganisms entering air ducts as well as falling onto the unfortunate residents below. Such contaminants can result in airborne particles of public health significance (Frantz 1988). Ectoparasites and other Arthropods Several arthropods (fungivores, detritivores, predators, and bat Ectoparasites) are often associated with colonies of bats in buildings. Their diversity depends on the number of bats, age and quantity of excreta deposits, and sea-son. Arthropods such as dermestid beetles (Attagenus megatoma) contribute to the decomposition of guano and insect remnants, but may also become a pest of stored goods and/or a nuisance within the living quarters. Cock-roaches (for example, Blatta orientalis) attracted to guano may invade other parts of a building. Bat bugs (Cimex spp.) are sometimes found crawling on the surface of beams or around holes leading to secluded recesses used by bats. Bat ectoparasites (ticks, mites, fleas, and bugs) rarely attack humans or pets and quickly die in the absence of bats. Ectoparasites may become a nuisance, however, following exclusion of large numbers of bats from a well-established roost site. Area fumigation with a total release pyrethrum-based aerosol may be an appropriate solution for arthropod knockdown within an enclosed space, but only after bats have departed. For long-term arthropod control, lightly dust appropriate surfaces (affected attic beams, soffet) with boric acid powder or diatomaceous earth; carefully read all product labels before using any pesticide. Note that neither rabies nor Lyme disease is transmitted by any arthropods associated with bats.Public Health Issues Rabies—General Epidemiology. Bats are distinct from most vertebrate pests that inhabit human dwellings because of the potential for transmitting rabies — a viral infection of mammals that is usually transmitted via the bite of an infected animal. Rabies does not respond to antibiotic therapy and is nearly always fatal once symptoms occur. However, because of the long incubation period (from 2 weeks to many months), prompt vaccination following exposure can prevent the disease in humans. Dogs, cats, and livestock also can be protected by periodic vaccinations. Bats are not asymptomatic carriers of rabies. After an incubation period of 2 weeks to 6 months, they become ill with the disease for as long as 10 days. During this latter period, a rabid bat’s behavior is generally not normal—it may be found active during the day-time or on the ground incapable of flying. Most human exposures are the result of accidental or careless handling of grounded bats. Even less frequently, bats in this stage of illness may be involved in unprovoked attacks on people or pets (Brass, pers. common.; Trimarchi et al. 1979). It is during this stage that the rabid bat is capable of transmitting the disease by biting another mammal. As the disease progresses the bat becomes increasingly paralyzed and dies as a result of the infection. The virus in the carcass is reported to remain infectious until decomposition is well advanced. Significance. Rabies is the most important public health hazard associated with bats. Infection with rabies has been confirmed in all 40 North American species of bats that have been adequately sampled in all of the contiguous United States and in most provinces of Canada. Figure 8 shows the frequency of bat species submitted for rabies testing in New York State over the last 12 years. While not a nationwide measure of human encounters with bats. Note that bats submitted for testing are often ill and/or easily captured. The numbers and species encountered will vary with the region of the country; data are generally available from local and state health authorities. profile of bat species submitted to the New York State Rabies Laboratory, 1981-1992.
Big Brown (R = 6.0%)
Little Brown (R = 1.0%)
Keen’s (R = 1.8%)
Red (R = 5.7%)
Hoary (R = 16.3%)
Silver-haired (R = 8.9%)
Other and Unknown (R = 2.5%)
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000
Number of Bats
Random sampling of bats (healthy and ill) indicates an overall infection rate of less than 1%. Finding a rabid bat in a colony does not imply that the remaining animals are rabid. In fact, the probability of immediately finding more than one additional infected bat in that colony is small. Bats rank third (behind raccoons and skunks) in incidence of wildlife rabies in the United States (Krebs et al. 1992). In the last 20 years, however, there have been more human rabies cases of bat origin in the United States than of any other wildlife group. Furthermore, the disease in bats is more widely distributed (in all 48 contiguous states in 1989) than in any other species. In Canada, bats also rank third (behind foxes and skunks) in the incidence of wildlife rabies. Therefore, every bat bite or contact must be considered a potential exposure to rabies. While aerosol transmission of the rabies virus from bats in caves to humans and some other mammals has been reported, this is not a likely route of infection for humans entering bat roosts in buildings in temperate North America. Note that vampire bats are not a threat north of Mexico.
Histoplasmosis is a very common lung disease of worldwide distribution caused by a microscopic fungus, Histoplasma capsulatum. Histoplasma exists in nature as a saprophytic mold that grows in soil with high nitrogen content, generally associated with the guano and debris of birds (particularly starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, and chickens) and bats. Wind is probably the main agent of dispersal, but the fungus can survive and be transmitted from one site to another in the intestinal contents of bats, and also in the dermal appendages of both bats and birds. The disease can be acquired by the casual inhalation of windblown spores, but infections are more likely to result from visits to point sources of growth of the fungus. Relative to bats, such sources include bat roosts in caves, barns, attics, and belfries, and soil enriched with bat guano. Numerous wild and domestic animals are susceptible to histoplasmosis, butbats (and perhaps the armadillo) are the only important animal vectors. Unlike bats, birds do not appear to become infected with the fungus. Both the presence of guano and particular environmental conditions are necessary for H. capsulatum to proliferate. In avian habitats, the organism apparently grows best where the guano is in large deposits, rotting and mixed with soil rather than in nests or in fresh deposits. Specific requirements regarding bats have not been described, though bat roosts with long-term infestation are often mentioned in the literature. While histoplasmosis in the United States is particularly endemic to the Ohio-Mississippi Valley region (which is also an area with the greatest star-ling concentration) and areas along the Appalachian Mountains, it is also found in the lake and river valleys of other states. Outside areas with “appropriate” environmental conditions, there also occur scattered foci with high infection rates usually associated with caves inhabited by bats or birds. Significance. When soil or guano containing H. capsulatum is physically disturbed, the spores become airborne. Persons at particular risk of histoplasmosis of bat origin include spelunkers, bat biologists, pest control technicians, people who clean out or work in areas where bats have habitually roosted, and people in contact with guano-enriched soil — such as around the foundation of a building where guano has sifted down through the walls. Infection occurs upon inhalation of spores and can result in a variety of clinical manifestations; severity partially depends on the quantity of spores inhaled. The infection may remain localized in the lungs where it may resolve uneventfully; this is the case for about 95% of the 500,000 infections occurring annually in the United States. Such infections are identified only by the presence of a positive histoplasmin skin test and/or calcified lesions on routine radiographs. Other individuals may have chronic or progressive lung disease requiring treatment. Less severe forms of these infections may be accompanied by fever, cough, and generalized symptoms similar to a prolonged influenza. Resolution of the disease confers a degree of immunity to re-infection. In addition, resolution confers varying degrees of hypersensitivity to H. capsulatum; as a consequence, massive re-infection in highly sensitized lungs may result in a fatal acute allergic reaction. In a small percentage of chronic histoplasmosis cases, the fungus disseminates to involve multiple organ systems and may be fatal. This form is usually seen in young children (1 year or older) and in immunocompromised adults. In recent years, systemic infections have been increasing in frequency globally as an opportunistic infection of AIDS patients.
The lethal control of bats, even when there is a proven potential danger to humans, often is subjected to careful scrutiny and interagency coordination. A survey of federal legislative actions, court decisions, and agency interpretations concerning bats can be found in Bat Management in the United States (Lera and Fortune 1979). Some states have laws that specifically mention bats, either providing or denying protection. Others have legislation that applies to bats only by interpretation, since bats may be considered non-game wild life or indigenous state mammals. Some bats have protection as either federal or state-listed endangered species, but the same state may not protect other species of bats. Enforcement and public education must accompany legislation to accomplish the intended goal of protecting the public and saving endangered bats. Familiarity with the appropriate federal and state laws should precede any nuisance management activities.
Damage Prevention and Control Methods
Pre-management Considerations Bat Watch for Infestation Confirmation. To confirm that bats are actually roosting in or on a building, look for bats flying in and out of a site and/ or for signs of infestation. A bat watch can be conducted by two people (more may be necessary to observe large or complex sites) posted at opposite corners of a structure. An evening watch begins about 30 minutes before dark and a morning watch begins about 1 hour before dawn. Observations should continue for approximately 1 hour. Such observations can indicate exit/ entry points and the number of bats. With practice, distinguishing some bat species may also be possible. For example, compared to the big brown bat, the little brown bat is noticeably smaller in size, and its flight has more rapid wing beats, and more rapid turning and darting. It may be necessary to watch for more than one night to compensate for weather conditions, bats’ sensitivity to observers, noisy or inexperienced ob-servers, and improper use of light. Observations can be enhanced with a standard flashlight, but be certain to keep the bright part of the beam as far as possible away from the exit hole being observed. Bright light will increase bats’ reluctance to exit and may result in an incomplete exit of the colony. A valuable observation aid is a powerful, rechargeable flashlight equipped with a plastic, red pop-off filter (similar to the Kodak Wratten 89B). Also, an electric headlamp, supplied with recharge-able batteries and fitted to a climbing or spelunking helmet, allows hands-offillumination outdoors as well as in-doors when exploring roost locations. Bats are sensitive to light intensity and can visually discriminate shapes and patterns in extremely low light situations. They can only see in black and white; hence, low-contrast illumination and soft shadows produced by red light has little effect on bats.
Locating the Roost(s).
It is not always possible or convenient to con-duct a bat watch. Thus, a detailed inspection inside the building for bats or bat sign may be necessary to find specific roosts. Daytime is best, especially during the warmer part of the day. Bats roost in the most varied kinds of buildings and in every part from cellar to attic. Some types of buildings appear preferable (older houses, churches, barns, proximity to water) as do certain roost locations therein, especially areas with little disturbance, low illumination, little air circulation, and high temperatures. Often it is easy to locate bats, especially in warm weather in attics or lofts, where they may hang in clusters or side-by-side from the sloping roof lath, beams, and so forth. However, bats have the ability to find crevices and cavities, and if disturbed may rapidly disappear into the angles between converging beams, behind such beams or wallboards, into mortise holes on the underside of beams, and into the multilayered wall and roof fabrications. If bats cannot be openly observed, usually there are various interior and exterior signs of their presence. Often there are multiple roost sites within or on a single building.
Once it has been confirmed that bats are present, one must determine if there is damage, if there is a health risk, and if some intervention is warranted. There are circumstances in which “no action” is the correct action because of the beneficial role of bats. In cases where there is risk of contact, damage from excreta accumulations, stains, and so on, intervention may be necessary. Timing. With the exception of disease treatment and removal of the occasional bat intruder, timing becomes an important planning consideration. Management procedures must not complicate an already existing problem and should emphasize bat conservation. Therefore, all interventions should be initiated before the young are born or after they are weaned and able to fly. Thus, the annual opportunity extends from about mid-August to mid-May for much of North America. Treatments might otherwise result in the unnecessary death of animals (especially young unable to fly) trapped inside, offensive odors, and attraction of arthropod scavengers.
Disease Considerations Rabies — Preventive Measures.
It should be noted that newspapers, television, and other mass media some-times misrepresent the role of rabid bats as a risk to humans. However, the unfortunate recent (1983 to 1993) deaths of a 22-year-old man in Texas, a 30-year-old bat scientist in Finland, a university student in British Columbia, a 5-year-old girl in Michigan, a man in Arkansas, an 11-year-old girl in New York, and a woman in Georgia amply underscore the need to pay prompt attention to bat bites and other exposures. Many rabies exposures could be avoided if people simply refrained from handling bats. Adults and children should be strongly cautioned never to touch bats with bare hands. All necessary measures should be taken to ensure that bats cannot enter living quarters in houses and apartments. Pet cats and dogs should be kept up-to-date in rabies vaccinations. This is also true for pets confined indoors, because contact with bats frequently occurs indoors. Valuable live-stock also should be vaccinated if kept in buildings harboring bats or if in a rabies outbreak area (NASPHV 1993). While transmission of rabies from bats to terrestrial mammals apparently is not common, such incidents have been reported (Reid-Sanden et al. 1990,Trimarchi 1987). Dogs, cats, and live-stock that have been exposed to a rabid or suspected-rabid animal, but are not currently vaccinated, must be either quarantined or destroyed. Lastly, pest control technicians, nuisance wildlife control personnel, wild-life biologists, and other individuals at particular risk of contact with rabid bats (or other wildlife) should receive a rabies pre-exposure vaccination. This effective prophylaxis involves only three injections of rabies vaccine, which are administered in the arm during a month’s time.
Rabies — Treatment for Expo-sure.
If a person is bitten or scratched by a bat, or there is any suspicion that bat saliva or nervous tissue has contaminated an open wound or mucous membrane, wash the affected area thoroughly with soap and water, capture the bat without damaging the head, and seek immediate medical attention. The incident should be reported promptly to local health authorities in order to arrange rabies testing of the bat. If the bat is captured and immediate transportation to the testing laboratory is possible, and if immediate testing can be arranged, post exposure treatment may be delayed several hours until the test results are known. Post exposure prophylaxis must be administered immediately, however, if the bat cannot be captured, if prompt transportation to the laboratory is not possible, if the specimen is not suitable for reliable diagnosis, or if the test results prove positive for rabies. The prophylaxis has little resemblance to that of many years ago. Today, it consists of one dose of rabies immune globulin (human origin) and one dose of rabies vaccine (human diploid cell) administered preferably on the day of exposure, followed by additional single doses of rabies vaccine on days 3, 7, 14, and 28 following the initial injection. This treatment is normally safe, relatively painless, and very effective.
Histoplasmosis — Preventive Measures. Histoplasmosis can most easily be prevented by avoiding areas that harbor H. capsulatum. Since this is not practical for individuals who must work in and around active/inactive bat roosting sites, other measures can be recommended to reduce the risk of infection during cleaning, field study, demolition, construction, and other activities. Persons working in areas known or suspected to be contaminated with H. capsulatum should always wear protective masks capable of filtering out particles as small as 2 microns in diameteror use a self-contained breathing apparatus. In areas known to be contaminated, wear protective clothing and gloves that can be removed at the site and placed in a plastic bag for later de- contamination via formalin and washing. Also, clean footwear before leaving the site to prevent spore disseminationin cars, the office, at home, and elsewhere. Guano deposits and guano-enriched soils should not be unnecessarily disturbed. Dampening with water orscheduling outdoor work at a time when the ground is relatively wet will minimize airborne dust. Chemically decontaminate known infective foci with a spray of 3% formalin (see CD C 1977). To protect the environment, decontamination must be conducted in accordance with state and local regulations. Chemical decontamination of an “active” bat roost should be conducted only after the bats have been excluded or after bats have departed for hibernation.
Histoplasmosis — Treatment.
Most infections in normally healthy individuals are benign and self-limiting and do not require specific therapy (George and Penn 1986; Rippon 1988). Treatment with an antifungal agent may be prescribed in more severe cases; amphotericin B and/or oral imidazole ketoconazole are typically recommended depending on the specific nature of the infection. Removal of Occasional Bat Intruders A bat that has blundered into the living quarters of a house will usually find its way out by detecting air movement. When no bite or contact with people or pets has occurred, the simplest solution for “removing” the bat is to try to confine it to one room, then open windows and doors leading out-doors and allow it to escape. If the bat is present at night, the lights should be dimmed to allow the animal to find open doors and windows; some light is necessary if an observer is to insure that the bat finds its way out. If bright lights are kept on, the bat may become confused and may seek refuge behind shelving, curtains, hanging pictures, or under furniture. Healthy bats normally will not attack people even when chased. Chasing a flying bat with a folded newspaper, tennis racket, or stick will cause the bat to take evasive action, and a bat’s flight reversal to avoid a wall is often misinterpreted as an attack. These failings, often futile, will cause a bat to seek safety wherever possible, making escape more difficult for the bat and more frustrating for the human. If the bat has difficulty escaping, it can be captured in a hand net. Using an insect net to remove a bat from a building. wait for it to come to rest, quickly cover it with a coffee can or similar container, and slide a piece of card-boardor magazine under the can to trap the bat inside (NYSDH 1990). Take the captured bat outdoors and release it away from populated areas, preferably after dark. Note that reasonably thick work gloves should be worn at all times when trying to capture a bat. Also, if a bite or physical contact occurs, capture the bat without damaging its head and immediately contact a physician (see previous section regarding rabies treatment). Management of problems involving bat colonies require more complicated procedures and a greater time commitment.
Exclusion; Preventive Aspects.
The most satisfactory and permanent method of managing nuisance bats is to exclude them from buildings. Locate bats and their points of exit/entry through bat watches or other inspection methods. This is a tedious process to locate all openings in use, and bats may switch to alternate ones when normal routes become unavailable. Thus, consider “potential” as well as “active” points of access. Often it is apparent where bats might gain entrance even when such openings are not directly observable. By standing in various locations of a darkened attic during daylight hours, one often can find leaks of light at the extreme parts of eaves, in layers of sub-roofing, and below chimney flashings. Seal all gaps of 1/4 x 1 1/2 inches (0.6 x 3.8 cm) and openings 5/8 x 7/8 inch (1.6 x 2.2 cm) or greater. Bats will also use some of the same obscure holes in buildings through which heat (or cooled air) is lost; thus, bat-proofing often conserves energy. The easiest time to seal bats out of buildings in northern latitudes is during the cooler part of the year when colonies are not resident. During this period, many homeowners need to be reminded that bats, and bat problems, return each summer. Basic carpentry, masonry, and tinsmith skills are valuable in bat exclusion and other pest proofing interventions.
Big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus)
forearm — 1.65 to 2.01 inches (4.2 to 5.1 cm) wingspan — 12.80 to 13.78 inches (32.5 to 35.0 cm) ears — with rounded tragus
From reddish brown, copper colored, to a dark brown depending on geo-graphic location. This is a large bat without distinctive markings. Confusion may occur with the evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis) though the latter is much smaller.
This hardy, rather sedentary species appears to favor buildings for roosting. Summer maternity colonies may include a dozen or so and up to a few hundred individuals, roosting behind chimneys, in enclosed eaves, in hollow walls, attics, barns, and behind shutters and unused sliding doors. They also form colonies in rock crevices, beneath bridges, in hollow trees, and under loose bark. Litter size is 2 in the East to the Great Plains; from the Rockies westward 1 young is born. E. fuscus frequently shares roosts with M. lucifugus in the East, and with M. yumanensis, Taderida, and Antrozous in the West. Males typically roost in smaller groups or alone during the summer. The big brown bat is one of the most widely distributed of bats in the United States and is probably familiar to more people than any other species. This is partially due to its large, easy-to-observe size, but also to its ability to over-winter in buildings (attics, wall spaces, and basements). Its close proximity to humans, coupled with its tendency to move about when temperature shifts occur, often brings this bat into human living quarters and basements in summer and winter. Big browns also hibernate in caves, mines, storm sewers, burial vaults, and other underground harborage. While E. fuscus will apparently travel as far as 150 miles (241 km) to hibernacula, the winter quarters of the bulk of this species are largely unknown. Big brown bats may live as long as 18 years.
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